Underwater Cleaning for Professional Shipping
Since 2018 a project consortium composed of representatives of the Environment Department of Bremen, of the ports management company bremenports, of the Coast Guard of Lower Saxony, of the Federal Agency of Shipping, of raw material suppliers for paint companies, of the Polar Institute Bremerhaven, of the shipping company Laeisz, of diving and cleaning companies, of the University of Applied Sciences Bremerhaven, and LimnoMar performs a research project on underwater cleaning of ship hulls. The project focuses on three topics:
Demonstration of practicability and efficacy of underwater cleaning of ships hulls coated with non-toxic, abrasion resistant coatings
Demonstration of collection and filtration techniques/systems for the removed fouling organisms with respect to water quality and introduction of invasive species
Drafting of application requirements for permissions of underwater hull cleaning and propeller polishing
There are a couple of documents introducing the project, participating vessels, treated coatings, and legislative aspects.
Summary of the Project
Report DG Diving
Taxonomy of Fouling Community
Application and Permission Requirements
An essential task of the project was the drafting of basic requirements for permissions to clean vessels hull. Application forms and standards were reviewed and compiled, mainly based on those used in Malta and South Africa. Conditions, standards and a proposal for an application form were drafted and can be downloaded.
Conditions and definitions of propeller polishing
Conditions and definitions of underwater cleaning
Application form, draft
Under the heading relevant publications we compiled references on the following issues:
Overviews on underwater cleaning techniques actually in use
Strategies of pro-active and re-active cleaning
Bohlander, J. (2009): Review of options for in-water cleaning of ships. MAF Biosecurity New Zealand Technical Paper No: 2009/42, 38 pp.
Tribou, M., Swain, G. (2010): The use of proactive inwater grooming to improve the performance of ship hull antifouling coatings, Biofouling, 26:1, 47-56.
MARAD (2012): In-water hull cleaning summary report. US-DOT-Maritime Administration, 50 pp.
Morrisey, D.; Woods, C. (2015): In-water cleaning technologies: Review of information. MPI Technical Paper No: 2015/38, 54 pp.
Zabin, C., Davidson, I., Ruiz, G. (2016): In-water vessel cleaning: current and emerging technologies,associated risks, and management options for Hawaii. 62 pp.
Curran, A., King, E., Lowe, C., O’Connor, B. (2016): Analyzing the Current Market of Hull Cleaning Robots, WPI, 82 pp.
Watermann, B. (2018): Reinigung statt Antifouling. Schiff & Hafen, 4, 18 – 19.
Watermann, B. (2019): Hull performance management and biosecurity by cleaning. Ship & Offshore, 1, 18 – 19.
Tamburri, M. (2019): Evaluation of Subsea Global Solutions In-Water Cleaning and Capture Technology for Ships. ACT/MERC IWCC Evaluation Report ER01-19, 3, 61 pp.
IMO-Biofouling Management Plan
Annual Vessel Reporting Form
Biosecurity risks associated with in-water and shore-based marine vessel hull cleaning operations