Antifouling biocides in German coastal & inland waters - How reliable are exposure prognoses of EU scenario models for marinas?
A comprehensive survey was initiated and funded by the Federal Environment Agency (UFOPLAN 2011, FKZ 3711 67 432) in order to quantify the amount of leisure boats in marinas and other locations in both inland and inshore waters. LimnoMar was in charge to conduct this study from 2012 – 2014.
Antifouling biocides are widely used for leisure boats in coastal and freshwater as in Germany. They are incorporated in eroding underwater paints to prevent the settlement of propagation stages of plants and animals. They are regulated by the Biocides Regulation (EU) No 528/2012 under product type 21. The Biocidal Products Directive regulates the authorisation and placing on the market of biocidal products for use on the European market. The Biocidal Products Directive consists of two application procedures: Application for a biocidal active substance to be included in the annexes of the Directive, and application for authorisation and mutual recognition of biocidal products. A key precondition for the authorisation of biocidal products is that the biocidal active substance is included in a "list of permitted active substances" that applies throughout the EU, Annex I or IA of Directive 98/8/EC. For the purpose of the inclusion of an active substance in these annexes the applicant elaborates a dossier which includes all of the information necessary for a comprehensive risk assessment. Inter alia, extensive studies on the effect of the substance on human health, on its influence on the environment, on the exposure situation and on measures for the protection of man and the environment are submitted.
In addition to the inclusion of individual active substances in the annexes of Directive 98/8/EC, the biocide procedure is also concerned with the authorisation of biocidal products. The product authorisation procedure is based on the previous active substance procedure. A prerequisite for the successful authorisation of a biocidal product is that the biocidal active substances contained within it are included in the annexes of Directive 98/8/EC.
Reliable data on the inventory of leisure boats and marinas with their amounts of berths have to be used in the implementation process of the EU Biocidal Products Directive. For Germany, such area wide data were lacking so far The census of the number of leisure boats at their berths in German waters revealed a total of 206,279, of which 146,425 (71%) boats were located in freshwater, 54,079 (26.2%) boats in brackish waters (salinity <18‰) and 5,775 (2,8%) boats in marine waters. The structure and characteristics of freshwater harbours were quite heterogeneous. Areas of high density of leisure boats were identified at the western Baltic Sea coast, the Lower Elbe around Hamburg, the Mecklenburg Lake District, Berlin with its surrounding waters, and Lake Constance with further pre-alpine lakes.
In the second work package, water concentrations of currently used antifouling biocides and some of their specific breakdown products were screened in 50 selected marinas in order to demonstrate the variety of antifouling active substances occurring in German leisure boat harbours.
Finally, in a third work package, measured antifouling concentrations in selected marinas were compared with those calculated using the MAMPEC model. With emphasis on freshwater sites the reliability of MAMPEC turned out to be restricted in view of the actual antifouling input and exposure in German leisure boat harbours.