Laboratory for Freshwater, Marine Research  


actual projects
Underwater Cleaning for Professional Shipping

Performed Projects
List of Projects
HAI-TECH Project
Mobile techniques for leisure boat hull cleaning
Antifouling biocides in German coastal & inland waters - How reliable are exposure prognoses of EU scenario models for marinas?
Foulprotect – Fouling Prevention and Protection of Bio-Corrosion for the Maritime Industry
Project of cleaning leisure boats 2012 – 2014
Testing of mobile cleaning tools on hulls of leisure boats
Survey on the Practice with Antifouling Coatings in Marinas of Lower Saxony

List of publications

List of Projects

Survey on practice with antifouling products in marinas of Lower Saxony
Funded by: Ministery of Envronment, Lower Saxony
Coordinator: Lower Saxony Water Management, Coastal Defence and Nature Conservation Agency

Antifouling biocides in German coastal & inland waters - How reliable are exposure prognoses
of EU scenario models for marinas?

Funded by: German Federal Environment Agency
Compilation of pleasure boats and marinas in Germany, chemical analyses of antifouling biocides in use, comparison of measured concentrations in marinas and predicted concentrations of antifouling biocides calculated with MAMPEC
2012 – 2014

HAI-TECH – Low-friction surfaces created by coatings systems. Development of riblet coatings and their application for the use in freshwater and marine
Funded by: German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology
Coordinator: Fraunhofer Institut für Fertigungstechnik und Angewandte Materialforschung (IFAM)

CERTOL, Non-toxic antifouling for leisure boats
Funded by: EU-Commission
COOP-CT-2006, 032333
Development of eroding and non-eroding non-biocidal coatings for leisure boats
2007 – 2009

The use of nanomaterials as alternative to biocidal antifouling coatings and their environmental impact
Funded by: German Federal Environment Agency
This study revealed that a variety of nanomaterials are already in use for antifouling paint systems. On the market for leisure boats 22 antifouling products and 3 underwater coatings reducing the friction could be identified. These products are available on the German, the European and the global market. For all antifouling systems and underwater coatings on the market, the specification of the used nanomaterials was not specified e.g. in the Technical Data Sheets or Safety and Health Data Sheets. Nanotechnology based antifouling systems on the leisure boat market and on the professional market could not be regarded as alternatives to antifouling systems which are not using nanotechnology.
2008 – 2009

Hydrodynamic and acoustic properties of superhydrophobic coatings on ships (HYDROPHOB)
Funded by: German Federal Ministry of Economy and Technology
Project partner: Model Basin Potsdam (SVA), PowerCut (manufacturer of propellers), Müller-BBM
(hydro acoustics), LimnoMar (Laboratory for Aquatic Research)
The aim of the project is the investigation of special properties of foul release coatings for ship hulls and propellers. The hydrodynamic profile and the reduction of friction which is along with the fouling prevention one of the most important aspects of foul release coatings will be thoroughly investigated. The inter phase between the coating and the water currents will be studied. The boundary layer and special alterations of super hydrophobic coatings will be studied applying DNS (direct numerical simulation) and LES (large eddy simulation). Along with these measurements hydro acoustic techniques will be applied to study the special effects of super hydrophobic coatings with regard to cavitation and sound. Along with these tests, exposure of test plates under stationary condition and under flow regime (up to 15Kn) will be performed as simulated field test in the North Sea (Norderney). In addition, test panels will be investigated in the model basin and the cavitation tunnel of Potsdam. In the frame of the research project a variety of superhydrophobic, hydrophobic coatings will be tested.
2009 – 2011

Traveling Exhibition "Biocide-free Antifouling Paints"
Funded by: Niedersächsische Lottostiftung - BINGO! - Die Umweltlotterie Project partner: WWF Deutschland, Nationalpark Niedersächs. Wattenmeer
This traveling exhibition presented the most outstanding results of scientific investigations on the effectiveness and environmental compatibility of biocide-free antifouling paints. The exhibition compiled and summarized the results of research projects conducted between 1998 – 2003. These studies belong to the most detailed and independent investigations on the performance of biocide-free antifouling paints worldwide.
2004 – 2006

Investigations on the adhesion mechanisms of barnacles on non-toxic foul-release coatings

Funded by: Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt
Thesis of Maja Wiegemann
The increasing regulations of biocides used as antifouling agents reinforce the search for environmentally friendly antifouling systems. Non-stick coatings (also called foul-release coating) based on silicone proved to be most promising so far. Still, this type of coating needed improvements to be applicable to a wider range of vessels. In order to define the properties which influence non-stick behavior of surfaces it was necessary to understand the properties of the adherent - namely the barnacle adhesive - and the bonding forces in the interface between the substrate and the adherent. These aspects were investigated in a Thesis on the adhesion-mechanisms of barnacles.
2001 – 2003

UBA RAL/UZ Projekt: Feasibility study for new environmental labels according to ISO 14024 for biocide-free products
Funded by: German Federal Environmental Agency
In this feasability study basic efficacy and toxicity criteria were formulated to allow for the award of a new environmental label for biocide-free fouling-release products.
November 2002 – October 2003

Contamination of the Lower Saxony coast with organic antifouling biocides
Funded by: Niedersächsische Wattenmeerstiftung
Project partner: Terramare
In this project chemical analysis of Diuron, Irgarol and copper in selected harbour sediments and reference stations of the Lower Saxony coast were compared with chemical analysis and histological investigations of blue mussels, Pacific oysters, and periwinkles.
2003 – 2004

Performance of biocide-free antifouling paints
Funded by: German Environmental Foundation (DBU)
In this research project a large variety of coastal operating ships and deep sea-going vessels were painted with test patches, delivering more information on performance of biocide-free antiouling coatings in service.
1999 – 2003

Symposium "Performance of biocide-free antifouling paints"
As a final event an International two-day Symposium "Present Status and Prospectives of Biocide-Free Fouling-Release Coatings" will be held from 17th – 18th of November 2003 in the Centre for the Mediation of Environmental Affairs, Osnabrück, Germany to illustrate the outcome of the research project.

Occurrence and impact of organic antifouling biocides in the Weser estuary with special emphasis on Irgarol and Diuron
Funded by: WWF Deutschland, Senator für Bau und Umwelt Bremen
Project partner: Terramare
2002 – 2003

Sustainable perspectives for the Lake Constanze. Suitable antifouling systems. Drinking water quality by environmental technologies
Funded by: Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt.
Project partner: Bodensee-Stiftung
1998 – 2000

Research and development of Chitosan and its applicability for natural based paints, including varnishes and antifouling coatings
Funded by: Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt
Project partner: Sehestedter Naturfarben, Christian-Albrechts Universität Kiel - Abteilung Pharmazeutische Technologie und Biopharmazie, Duag
1997 – 1999

Remediation of the coastal areas of Lower Saxony of toxic organotin compounds. Pilot study to test non-toxic coatings for ships 25 m above
Funded by: Umweltlotto Niedersachsen and Wattenmeerstiftung
Project partner: WWF Germany, Umweltminsterium Niedersachsen and Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Ökologie, Forschungsstelle Küste

Pilot study for the development of devices to control fouling by cleaning on ships in Hamburg harbour
Funded by: WWF and Umweltbehörde Hamburg

Ship trials of non-toxic antifouling coatings on ferries operating in the Northfrisian Wadden Sea
Funded by: WWF und Ministerium für Umwelt, Natur and Forstwirtschaft Schleswig-Holstein

Antifouling effects of electro-magnetic fields
Funded by: Ministerium für Bildung und Forschung
Project partner: Humboldt Universität Berlin - Institut für Biologie
1998 – 1999

Investigation on techniques to clean the hull of pleasure boats used as an alternative to antifouling paints
Funded by: Umweltbundesamt Berlin
Projectpartner: Fraunhofer Institute for applied engineering, Stuttgart
1996 – 1999

Development of natural antifouling coatings for submerged surfaces
Funded by: Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt, Osnabrück
1995 – 1997

Pilot study: Testing of mechanical cleaning on non-toxic coatings
Funded by: Bund für Umwelt- und Naturschutz Deutschland e.V. (BUND)

Natural biocides and non-toxic antifouling coatings, their effectiveness and application on sea-going ships
Funded by: Umweltbundesamt Berlin
Project partner: Zoologisches Institut der Universität Hamburg
1992 – 1993




© LimnoMar, Dr. Watermann